At one level, teachers may believe that such training makes their art “real”. Possibly there is some benefit in enduring such harshness, but his strikes me (pun intended) more of a gaman-tsuyoi (がまん強い) mentality than anything. It seems to me that most of these instructors and students are missing a fundamental principle of Okinawa and Japanese martial ways. This principle is known as yo-no-bi. Common among the older generation of craftsmen in Japan, yo-no-bi consists of two kanji, yo (用) which means use or application, and bi (美) which means beauty. Together they aim to balance the aesthetic and the functional – not only must a technique be functional, but it must be pleasing to the eye.